The caliphate lasted for centuries and developed into the Ottoman Empire, which controlled a large region of the Middle East from 1517 to 1917 when World War I ended Ottoman rule.
With 1.8 billion Muslims, Islam is the second largest religion in the world after Christianity. Unlike many religions, there is not a single image or symbol of Islam that is accepted by all Muslims.
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the teachings of Prophet Muhammad ibn Abdullah (A.D. 570-632), whose name is Muslim and who added “peace be upon him” to the scriptures of the Book. The followers of Islam call themselves Muslims, and there are now about two billion people in the world, second only to Christians. Like Christianity and Judaism, Islam is a continuation of the teachings of Abraham, who appears in the Jewish and Christian scriptures and is considered a prophet of Islam. “Peace be upon him.”. However, Islam differs in relation to these two religions.
The history of Islam as a culture and community as it regards the political, social, economic and cultural development of Islam. The following short timeline highlights some of the most important events in the development of Islam and the geographical spread of the religion in the countries shown in the film. The beginning of Islam is marked in 610 after the first revelation of Prophet Mohammed at the age of 40. Mohammed and his followers spread the teachings of Islam throughout the Arabian Peninsula.
Most accept that Islam as a culture and community has its origins in Mecca and Medina from the 7th century AD. Muslims see it as a return to the original faith of prophets such as Suleman, David, Musa, Ibrahim, Nuh and Adam and a submission to the will of God by Islam.
According to tradition, the Islamic prophet Mohammed received what Muslims regard as divine revelations in 610 A.D. in anticipation of an imminent judgment and the care of the poor and needy, in anticipation of a divine revelations to each other and to God. After the death of Mohammed in 632 AD the leadership of Muslim Ummah (community) was assumed by Abu Bakr who assumed the title of Caliph (successor) of Mohammed.
Since the dawn of Islam, Muhammad has instilled in his followers a sense of brotherhood and a bond of faith, which has helped to develop in them a sense of close relationship, reinforced by their experience of persecution in the nascent community of Mecca. The strong attachment to the teachings of the Koran and the Anic revelations as well as the striking socio-economic content of Islamic religious practices further cemented this bond.
In 622 AD, Muhammad emigrated to Medina, where his sermons were accepted by the community and the state of Islam was established. Islam’s essential egalitarianism – the community was faithful to the religion, and there was no official discrimination against followers of other religions – quickly won converts.
After sustained persecution in Mecca, Muhammad and his followers emigrated to the nearby city of Yathrib, now known as Medina, where people accepted Islam. In Medina, Muhammad established an Islamic state based on the laws revealed in the Koran and inspired by the guidance given to him by God.
The Muslim community elects his father-in-law and close confidant Abu Bakr as caliph (successor). For the first time, the Muslim community chooses a caliph freely, not from a faction.
Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law, won the first battle of Basra in 656 with an army backed by Muhammad’s widow Aisha. Elected caliph by rebels, Ali spent most of his rule in conflict with other Muslims. Ali’s caliphate provoked the only major religious divide in the history of Islam between Sunnis and Shiites (see Shiites).
By the 7th century Arabia had become the cradle of the third great monotheistic religion in the world. The first was Judaism in the region stretching from the Red Sea to Palestine, Christianity at the northern end of the region and Islam in the south, with Mecca near the sea. The Umayyad dynasty (Ommiad, name comes from Umayya ibn Abd-Shams, great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph) ruled from 661 to 750.
The later arrivals were the third great monotheistic religion in the world that claimed to build on the message of their immediate family of religious predecessors and bring a better, more accurate version of the truth of the One God revealed in this case by the Messenger of God Muhammad. The history of the Islamic faith on the African continent spans fourteen centuries. For the first time in a single volume, this history of Islam on the African continent presents a detailed historical map of the religions cultural, political, geographical and religious past on a continental scale.
The history of the Islamic world from 600 to 1800 offers a fresh and unique overview of the formation of the faith and the most important developments that characterized the history of the wider regions from late antiquity to the beginning of modern times. What follows is a short history of Islam in the United States, the country whose founding today was to guide the Muslim American community, how it grew and how it exists today.
Islam practiced in the Muslim mosque in Highland Park is not an exotic or strange thing or a spectacle. It is an American faith tradition that cannot be found in nearby churches or synagogues. The mosque built by Muslim migrants to serve as a place of worship was supposed to represent Islam to American observers, like the Cairo Street mosque, but the Muslims in Highland Park hoped to give a different impression of their faith. It wasn’t an exotic, strange thing or spectacle.
Mohammed (also spelled Mohammed or Mohammad) was born in 570 AD in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, and Muslims believe that he is the last prophet sent to reveal his faith to humanity. According to Islamic texts and traditions, a certain angel called Gabriel visited Muhammad in 610 AD while meditating in a cave. Important Islamic shrines are the Kaaba Shrine in Mecca and Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem as well as the mosque of Prophet Muhammad in Medina.
Muslims view technology as a way to make the world a better place. They see technology to help and improve human civilization, not destroy it or leave people behind. As Muslims, our responsibility is to make sure we do nothing that would hinder humanity’s progress and development in this century.
The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “The Muslim is he from whose hand and tongue other Muslims are safe” [Al-Bukhari]. In an age where any individual can reach around the globe with just one click of a button, we have no excuse not to lead by example when using technology for good.
When it comes to technology, Muslims are not necessarily opposed to it, but they want to use it consistently with Islamic teachings”.
The risk of being misunderstood has forced many companies into an awkward position. On the one hand, social media have made communication between Muslim customers and businesses much quicker and easier than before. The need for small or medium-sized firms to take advantage of this opportunity is clear. Many are already actively engaged on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram – almost half (45%) are present on at least two platforms, according to The Economist Intelligence Unit’s 2017 Business Mobility Survey.
But these same businesses must tread carefully when interacting with Muslims through digital channels because what may be acceptable practice elsewhere could easily offend their target market’s religious sensibilities. For example, although “happy hours” are common among consumers everywhere who share a business platform online during Ramadan – where socializing over food and drink after sunset is allowed – some Muslims would object if alcohol brands were involved in promotions around the holy month without first consulting them about it beforehand; indeed advertising alcohol products via social media altogether has been banned by many governments across the Middle East region since 2010 following protests from conservative citizens against its promotion online during Ramadan.
Followers of Islam are permitted to use technology to improve their lives and do “good” things. The Qur’an even emphasizes the importance of knowledge over wealth: “And seek not of the people the riches that We have bestowed on them, but strive rather to give a better life to the needy among them.” (28:77)
The idea here is that if one can use technology positively, they should go ahead and do so. However, it does not mean that followers of Islam are allowed to be lazy or irresponsible with technology – nor does it mean they should avoid using technology when possible. For example, someone paying for an app on their smartphone may earn money through whatever work they perform on their phone; God will judge each person according to their circumstances. As such, what constitutes positively using technology? Here are some ideas.
Technology exists for you (and me) to make our lives easier and more comfortable, particularly within our own homes where we spend most of our time! Suppose I am working at home late into the evening hours writing articles like this one. In that case, I will probably take advantage of my laptop’s ability to track how much battery power remains so I know exactly when I need to recharge my battery or plug it in.
Likewise, many modern cars now come fitted with GPS systems that enable us to navigate long distances without getting lost – although pilgrims walking from place to place during Ramadan may want to turn off these tracking devices because sometimes walking outside your house can bring about spiritual benefits too! Technology exists for us all sorts of useful purposes, e.g., improving schoolwork via Internet educational websites like Khan Academy makes learning fun, ensuring pupils learn faster than ever before, etc.)
There’s another point worth mentioning here too….however good your intentions were, i.e., improving education by utilizing information & communication technologies (ICT), there could still be negative outcomes resulting from introducing new technologies into Islamic schools, e.g., giving students smartphones might make them become distracted from memorizing Quran quickly enough).
So while you cannot say something ‘isn’t permitted’ based solely upon its potential risks, i.e., nothing is forbidden unless proven otherwise); you can still decide whether or not particular technological applications should be used based upon individual requirements considering all aspects involved beforehand – including any other factors which might impact negatively against certain individuals due purely down other factors outwith your control -such as a human error)!
So while keeping everything else constant between two situations, if A resulted in X being achieved quicker than Situation B would have done under similar circumstances, saying “A was preferable” because “X was accomplished sooner.” You must always compare both situations properly first, though! As far as using apps is concerned, there are plenty today, including those designed specifically for Muslims. It depends on what type(s)of application(s) best suits different Muslim communities’ needs & lifestyles nowadays, for example, prayer times calculators, Taraweeh timing reminders, etc.)
Gambling in Islam is not specifically prohibited, but it is also not welcomed in most Islamic societies. This is mostly because Islam was born in a cultural context where gambling was unheard of, and therefore no specific guidance was needed for this subject.
However, what has made the Muslim community more cautious about gambling than other religions is that one cannot dismiss its addictive potentials. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “O you group of people who believe with your tongues whilst disbelieving with your hearts! Do not gamble even with something insignificant, because among you there are some who take away others’ money by cheating; games of chance should not enter into any person’s home.” [Tirmidhi]
Since many Muslims associate lotteries and casinos as forms of gambling that should be avoided to protect against their potentially addictive nature, it can cause problems if one wishes to participate in them strictly for charity purposes only. Many scholars advise Muslims intending on donating to charities through such activities or companies that deal with them (like lottery tickets) to first seek advice from an imam or scholar before participating to avoid giving anything haram without realizing it since there may be hidden elements within these activities which make them impermissible according to shariah law.
Although gambling is considered a grey area, it is widely accepted among Muslims. The government allows it to take place, but only in casinos. It is not allowed at home or for individuals. However, it’s also considered a basic human right that the state must respect, protect and fulfill. The UN Declaration of Human Rights states that “everyone has the right to enjoy himself in any way that does not harm others.” Many forms have been practiced throughout history – dice games, card games, lotteries, etc., which have all served as means of entertainment and recreation before being legalized for various purposes such as raising revenue for the state treasury or funding science projects, etc.
Gambling can be seen as part of man’s desire for stimulation and excitement – however, due to its potential risks. Islam emphasizes moderation even in seemingly harmless activities. Wherever negative aspects are associated with something, Islam encourages us to avoid them altogether instead of taking a moderate approach, thus creating more harm than good (i.e., playing golf during Ramadan). It should also be mentioned that Islam prohibits betting on anything involving chance because this involves pure speculation (which is haraam according to Muslim scholars). In contrast, other forms like horse racing involve some skill which makes it allowable under Islamic law despite money transactions.
It’s important to remember that although Muslims gamble, it is different from the Western concept. So, if you go to a casino or a race track in a Muslim country, you will see people buying lottery tickets and placing bets on horse racing with cash. But at most casinos, they won’t have roulette tables or slot machines for obvious reasons – these are seen as games of pure chance where the odds aren’t fixed by skill or knowledge. In many Muslim countries, playing cards have been banned too because it’s seen as morally inappropriate, although people still play them privately. So there isn’t that much compared to what we would regard as ‘the casino experience’ in Islamic culture.
But even so, some Muslims gamble. I think this has changed over time: traditionally, Islam was very hostile to gambling but nowadays, especially among younger people who may not be religious themselves but whose parents are observant Muslims, attitudes towards it seem more relaxed than ever before. And those younger generations growing up with their eyes more open to other cultures and societies around the world might well feel less constrained than previous ones about such topics.
In conclusion, if you’re a Muslim and plan on gambling, make sure you do it on a casino that follows Islamic rules. Do not gamble more than the amount of money you can afford to lose, and make sure to pay zakat (one of the five pillars) for your winnings.
Muslims for Bush was created during the 2004 presidential campaign and has since turned into a blog about the Islamic faith. We discuss Islam and various topics related to the religion. Sign up for our newsletter for weekly updates!
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